Pharmacy Times Continuing Education™ is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. This activity is approved for 3.0 contact hours (0.30 CEU) under the ACPE universal activity number 0290-0000-21-079-H01-P. The activity is available for CE credit through March 10, 2022.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC, and Pharmacy Times Continuing Education™. Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC, is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC, designates this enduring material for a maximum of 3.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider #16669, for 3.0 Contact Hours.
Acknowledgment of Support
This activity is supported by an educational grant from United Therapeutics.
An American Journal of Managed Care® Supplement Improving Economic and Quality of Life Burden in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Review of Clinical Data and Strategies to Slow Progression
Release Date: March 10, 2021
Expiration Date: March 10, 2022
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, progressive disorder with currently unknown etiology. Initial symptoms are often nonspecific and include shortness of breath and fatigue, with some patients experiencing these symptoms for more than 2 years prior to receiving a diagnosis. As PAH progresses, these symptoms may become more severe and occur for patients at rest, making early recognition of symptoms and early diagnosis imperative among healthcare providers. Current treatment goals include symptom management and maintaining patient quality of life, so clinicians should be familiar with goal-directed therapy as well as tests and risk assessment tools to monitor prognosis, treatment, and disease progression in PAH. Multiple classes of agents are used in PAH treatment, and some have been investigated as combination therapy; however, pharmacists should be aware that certain combinations should be avoided due to increased adverse effects. These therapies are associated with significant cost burden for patients and the healthcare system, giving managed care pharmacists a significant opportunity to reduce costs and facilitate access of these medications. Mismanagement of patients with PAH stemming from delayed diagnosis is a main concern for managed care professionals, so ensuring consistent application of guideline recommendations is important to the PAH treatment paradigm.
Acknowledgement of Commercial Support
This activity is supported by an educational grant from United Therapeutics.
Instructions for This Activity and Receiving Credit
You may immediately download your certificate.
This activity is intended for managed care payers, pharmacy directors, pharmacy benefit managers, specialty pharmacy directors, and any other pharmacist and/or healthcare professional interested in scientific advances in the early detection of cancer.
Pharmacists and those seeking pharmacy credits are encouraged to register with our partner, Pharmacy Times Continuing Education (https://www.pharmacytimes.org/) for the online version of this supplement at: https://www.pharmacytimes.org/on-demand/improving-economic-and-quality-of-life-burden-in-pulmonary-arterial-bhypertensionb-a-review-of-clinical-data-and-strategies-to-slow-progression
Upon successful completion of this activity, you should be better prepared to:
- Classify the pathophysiology, etiology prognosis, and quality of life burden associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
- Explore the current treatment landscape, updated safety and efficacy data, and new and emerging therapies for PAH.
- Identify the costs associated with PAH and opportunities to slow progression and improve outcomes in this patient populations.
Faculty, Staff, and Planners’ Disclosures
In accordance with ACCME guidelines, PER® has identified and resolved all conflicts of interest for faculty, staff, and planners prior to the start of this activity by using a multistep process.
Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care
Director of Pulmonary Hypertension
University of Texas Health
San Antonio, Texas
Disclosures: Deborah Jo Levine has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science
University of Maryland School of Pharmacy
Disclosures: Stormi Gale has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Adjunct Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacotherapy
University of Utah College of Pharmacy
Salt Lake City, Utah
Disclosures: Douglas S. Burgoyne has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
MEDICAL WRITING & EDITORIAL SUPPORT
Banner Medical, LLC
Disclosures: Brittany Hoffmann-Eubanks has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Science Notes, LLC
Washington, District of Colombia
Disclosures: Marielle Fares has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Disclosures: Jenna Wood has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Pharmacy Times Continuing Education™ Planning Staff – Jim Palatine, RPh, MBA; Maryjo Dixon, RPh; Rose Namissa, PharmD, BCPS; Crissy Wilson; Susan Pordon; and Brianna Winters have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Anonymous peer reviewers were used as part of content validation and conflict resolution. The peer reviewers have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
According to the disclosure policy of The American Journal of Managed Care® and Pharmacy Times Continuing Education™, all persons who are in a position to control content are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests. If a conflict is identified, it is the responsibility of Pharmacy Times Continuing Education™ to initiate a mechanism to resolve the conflict(s). The existence of these relationships is not viewed as implying bias or decreasing the value of the activity. All educational materials are reviewed for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies reported, and levels of evidence.
Disclosure of Unapproved/Off-Label Use
The contents of this activity may include information regarding the use of products that may be inconsistent with or outside the approved labeling for these products in the United States. Participants should note that the use of these products outside current approved labeling is considered experimental and they are advised to consult prescribing information for these products.
The information provided in this CE activity is for continuing medical and pharmacy education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical or pharmacy judgment of a physician or pharmacist relative to diagnostic, treatment, or management options for a specific patient’s medical condition.
The opinions expressed in the content are solely those of the individual faculty members and do not reflect those of The American Journal of Managed Care®, Pharmacy Times Continuing Education™, or any of the companies that provided commercial support for this CE activity.
Signed disclosures are on file at the office of The American Journal of Managed Care®, Cranbury, New Jersey.
The staff of Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC have no relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities.
PER® mitigated all COI for faculty, staff, and planners prior to the start of this activity by using a multistep process.
CPE activities are offered solely for educational purposes and do not constitute any form of professional advice or referral. Discussions concerning drugs, dosages, and procedures may reflect the clinical experience of the author(s) or they may be derived from the professional literature or other sources and may suggest uses that are investigational in nature and not approved labeling or indications. Participants are encouraged to refer to primary references or full prescribing information resources.
Off-Label Disclosure and Disclaimer
This activity may or may not discuss investigational, unapproved, or off-label use of drugs. Learners are advised to consult prescribing information for any products discussed. The information provided in this accredited activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent clinical judgment of a healthcare professional relative to diagnostic, treatment, or management options for a specific patient’s medical condition. The opinions expressed in the content are solely those of the individual faculty members and do not reflect those of PER® or any company that provided commercial support for this activity.
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